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Distinguishing between intrinsic and stress-induced anisotropy using dispersion crossover     Anisotropy analysis can also be conducted using shear-wave parameters derived from Stoneley-wave dispersion.
This is known as    : Shear-wave splitting Shear-wave birefringence Shear-wave velocity anisotropy The difference in fast and slow shear-wave slowness provides a measure of the magnitude of anisotropy.
Shear-wave splitting is useful for evaluating: Fractures Bedding planes that intersect the borehole at an angle Unbalanced tectonic stresses perpendicular to the borehole Because the flexural waves induced by dipole-acoustic sources have a directional component, the use of mutually perpendicular crossed pairs of dipole transmitters and receivers can detect and measure dipole shear-wave splitting.
However, in an azimuthally anisotropic formation, the shear wave measured at the X-component of the receiver pair will be different from the one measured at the Y-component; one is called the fast shear component, the other, the slow shear component Fig.
To measure the fast and slow shear-wave slowness, four components are measured Fig.
The tool acquires four array data sets, two in-line, XX and YY; two crossed-line, XY and YX, and uses the physics of shear-wave splitting in azimuthally anisotropic rocks to determine the fast-shear polarization azimuth courtesy of Baker Atlas. The dipole flexural shear mode is affected by a variety of factors including formation anisotropy.
Significant borehole ellipticity the result of borehole failure or breakouts  and high relative inclination between the borehole and formation   may result in erroneous interpretation of dipole-derived anisotropy and must be accounted for during data processing.
More recently, inversion methods  are being applied to the four data sets to simultaneously determine the azimuth and magnitude of the anisotropy Fig. An anisotropy map Fig. This display facilitates interpretation by allowing the analyst to quickly assess depth intervals of interest by looking at the brightness, direction, and continuation of the features on the map.
The map also facilitates comparison with borehole-image logs. Rose diagrams Track 3 provide an accurate indication of the fast shear azimuth over each labeled depth interval. The integration of monopole and dipole measurements yields improved estimates of  : Anisotropy Magnitude of anisotropy Permeability Fig.
Horizontal stress and hydraulic fracturing Fractures, both natural and hydraulically induced, develop in relation to regional or localized stress patterns and play a major role in optimizing production and reservoir drainage. An estimate of the magnitude and azimuth of the horizontal stresses surrounding a borehole is needed for accurately placing wells to take advantage of existing fracture patterns and for artificially inducing fracture patterns during well completion through hydraulic stimulation.
In a borehole, these downhole stresses are expressed as radial components at the borehole wall: The azimuth of the fast-shear wave parallels the direction of maximum horizontal stress and the azimuth of the slow-shear wave parallels the direction of the minimum horizontal stress.
Hydraulic-fracture azimuth is parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress. Crossed-dipole anisotropy logging can estimate the vertical extent of the formation-stress fracture along the borehole and its azimuth in the formation Fig.
A Historical Review of Concepts and Methods. Using Acoustic Anisotropy, paper H. Evaluation of Anisotropy by Shear-Wave Splitting. The Log Analyst 30 2: Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing.Register with us today and in less than 60 seconds continue your access to: Latest news headlinesAnalytical topics and featuresCommodities videos, podcast & blogsSample market prices & dataSpecial reportsSubscriber notes & daily commodity email alerts.
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