Historical background[ edit ] Approximate central regions of tribes mentioned in Beowulf, with the location of the Angles in Angeln.
Introduction The acute toxic effects of MDMA are well documented by hundreds of case reports of adverse events in illicit users. Considering how many people use MDMA, serious acute adverse events seem rare. MDMA appears generally similar to psychostimulants such as methamphetamine with respect to the risks of acute toxicity.
With trained personnel, properly screened volunteers, and established protocols for monitoring and treating adverse events, these acute risks appear modest and do not present a strong argument against carefully conducted clinical research with MDMA. On the other hand, the risks associated with possible long-term brain damage are more difficult to assess.
Numerous studies in animals have shown that MDMA can produce long-lasting decreases in brain functions involving the neurotransmitter serotonin. It is unclear what these changes mean. Lasting behavioral changes in MDMA-exposed animals have been seldom detected and are fairly subtle when they are found.
Though limited in scope, studies of ecstasy users present a strong probability that similar serotonergic changes occur in many humans. Studies comparing ecstasy users and nonusers support an association between modestly-lowered intelligence testing, or cognitive performance tests, and ecstasy use, but clinically significant performance decreases have not been detected.
In other words, there is no increased incidence of clinical complaints or findings. The modest findings in behavioral studies of MDMA neurotoxicity have led some to dismiss concerns about MDMA neurotoxicity as politically-motivated alarmism.
It is commonly pointed out that though fenfluramine and methamphetamine produce similar changes, their status as prescription medications was not affected by this finding.
Although fenfluramine was removed from the U. In 15 years of research on MDMA neurotoxicity, no published studies have investigated whether MDMA exposure can cause significant toxicity that only becomes apparent with aging. This fact must be taken into account when considering the risks and benefits of possible clinical studies.
Perhaps the single most worrisome issue surrounding MDMA neurotoxicity is that there may be significant toxicity associated with serotonergic changes that is currently undetected.
Although millions of people have taken millions of doses of ecstasy, controlled studies of users have not been large enough to detect any but the most common chronic adverse effects.
Possible adverse effects such as an increased incidence of affective disorders, like depression, may have gone unnoticed. Because so little is known about possible long-term clinical implications of MDMA neurotoxicity, we believe it is important to minimize the risks of neurotoxicity in research volunteers.
It is hoped that the information presented here may contribute to assessments of, and perhaps reductions in, the risks associated with MDMA use. This chapter will discuss 1 the nature and meaning of MDMA-induced serotonergic changes; 2 the possible mechanisms of these changes; 3 factors influencing the severity of these changes such as dose, route of administration, species and animal strain, and environment ; and 4 the time course of these changes and recovery.
The latter part of this chapter will focus on the implications of long-term serotonergic changes by discussing 5 the behavioral and functional effects of MDMA-induced serotonergic changes in animals; 6 studies comparing ecstasy users to nonusers including personality, cognitive, and functional comparisons ; 7 available data from clinical studies in which MDMA was administered; and 8 potential strategies for reducing risk to human volunteers.Sample compare-contrast essay outline Here is a sample outline for an essay comparing and contrasting Achilles’ and Odysseus’ attitudes toward war.
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1That is, "The time for final `Judgment' has come near."As regards the use of the past tense in the original, this may be to show certainty of its occurrence in the near future or to emphasize the fact that the rebellion and the wrong deeds of the Quraish had become so unbearable that they warranted that the time for decisive action had come.
This article, written in early , is the best currently available overview of MDMA neurotoxicity. It is from the excellent book Ecstasy: The Complete Guide edited by Julie Holland which contains a number of very interesting articles on the topic of MDMA, its complications, and its potential as a psychiatric medication.
Mattew Baggott's article on neurotoxicity was written as he was.